JICA FOLLOW-UP PROGRAM REPORTT: PART 2
The JICA Follow-up Program report took up Malawi in Part 1, which is now followed by Tanzania. On Feb. 4, 2001, we moved from Malawi to Tanzania for a visit to the Japan International Cooperation Agency's office, the Japanese Embassy, the Tanzanian Federation of Agricultural Cooperatives, and the Ministry of Cooperative and Marketing. In addition, as we did in Malawi, we interviewed ex-IDACA participants and toured local cooperatives. Following are the contents of the JICA Follow-up Program.
The conditions of agricultural cooperatives in Tanzania Organization of farmers/agricultural cooperatives
(1) Agricultural and economic conditions
1) The Tanzanian economy relies heavily on agriculture. The agricultural sector shares 90 percent of the nation's total labor force and 80 percent of the country's exports. The agricultural outputs accounted for 49 percent of the country's 1999 GDP. In 1998, GDP totaled US$7.154 billion, or $220 per capita. In the same year, the economy grew 3.6 percent while the inflation rate was 8.9 percent in April 1999. It is said that Tanzanian economy is headed toward stable growth for years ahead.
2) In 1998, farm households (mainland) in 1998 numbered 4.4 million, 69 percent of which growing crops only, and the remaining 31 percent combining farm crops and livestock breeding. The arable area in Tanzania covers 43 million hectares, but cropland is only 6.3 million hectares, 58 percent of which raising food crops, such as maize, rice, millet, sorghum and barley/wheat. Only 3 percent of the cultivated land is irrigated. Mostly rain-fed, Tanzanian agriculture suffers widespread damage in times of droughts. Of all farmers, 93 percent are smallholders, each with cropland of 2 hectares or less.
(2) Organization of farmers/agricultural cooperatives
1) The Tanzanian community of cooperatives is of a four-tiered structure. In 1999, a total of 4,566 primary agricultural cooperative societies were registered. They included 2,590 cooperatives that mainly handled agricultural crops, 887 savings and credit cooperatives, 119 livestock cooperatives, 81 mining cooperatives, plus 624 industrial manufacturing cooperatives. It is reported that 3,480 of these cooperatives are active while 1,076 others have discontinued activities. The membership of all these cooperatives combined totals 575,651 and their paid-in capital amounts to 6.58 billion shillings (US$1 = 800 shillings) (about ｴ987 million).
2) Of organizations operating under a two-tier system, there are 44 local-level unions registered, including three cooperative banks. These unions have a total of 2,411 cooperatives under their wings and own 26,514 capital shares (equivalent to 360 million shillings).
3) Of organizations under a three-tier system, there are four commodity-wise national unions, of tobacco, coffee, cashew nuts and cotton. They represent 35 provincial-level member organizations and own 235 capital shares amounting to 834 million shillings (= ｴ125.1 billion).
4) The Tanzanian Federation of Agricultural Cooperatives is at the apex of all cooperatives in Tanzania. It is capitalized at 7.9 million shillings (= about ｴ1.19 million) with four national unions as its members. This union carries out a wide spectrum of activities, such as promoting the registration of cooperatives, collecting information, putting cooperatives together, hosting educational and seminar programs, acting as the representative of cooperatives, conducting publishing and investigative/consultative services, and auditing/guiding member organizations. Of its latest moves, the union will commence a feasibility study for founding a national cooperative bank and agricultural mutual-insurance cooperatives. These conceived projects gather great expectations from Tanzanians.
(1) Farmers' group (TEGEMEYO) in Bagamoyo Rice Planting Project
Project manager: Mr. Kapilime
Farmers' group head: Ms. Mwanhamis Ramadhan
1) In 1987, the Tanzanian government embarked on the project with the cooperation of JICA.
2) Teaching farms have been created to have 150 farmers learn the system of irrigation, with plans to give a pilot farm to the finishers of the training course. The farmland for the project measures 100 hectares, but only 40 hectares are usable because the rest is yet to be leveled. A total of 120 farm households have started growing crops on plots divided among them after organizing themselves. The farmers complain that they have been short-changed: While 0.5 hectares is regarded as the optimum size per household, only 0.25 hectares of land was given actually for reasons of shortages of available land space.
3) An 11-member committee has been set up, and it meets once a month.
4) Cooperative members must to pay their dues in cash. To be eligible for membership of the cooperative, one has to be a Bagamoyo resident, who has undergone one-year training. About 15 farmers can receive training in a year. They are given membership after being interviewed. The government owns the land and leases it to member farmers. They are trained in preparing seedbeds, how to select seeds, land leveling techniques, planting techniques, how to use fertilizer, spraying of agricultural chemicals and weeding.
5) The cooperative conducts no marketing business, so individual members sell their farm produce themselves. The government's rice purchasing price is 100 shillings/kg (=ｴ15), but farmers can earn as much as 150 shillings/kg (=about ｴ22.5) when they sell by the roadside.
6)The cooperative supplies fertilizer, agricultural chemicals, seed rice and fuel.
7) Problems of the cooperative are: no one has expertise in management; it has no tractors, no warehouses; none of its "ｗpersonnel" are paid for their service (government officials serve as the cooperative's project managers).
(1) On Feb. 8, a seminar was held at the conference hall of Courtyard Hotel where we were staying. Over 40 people attended it, they including ex-IDACA participants, JICA-dispatched Japanese experts and JICA's Tanzania Office personnel, representatives of Tanzanian government ministries concerned and members of the media.
(2) The seminar opened with a greeting by Mr. Sumio Aoki, Resident Representative of JICA Tanzania office followed by a report on the conditions of agriculture in Tanzania by the representative of ex-IDACA participants. After this, two IDACA officials, who represented an IDACA survey mission, delivered lectures on the principles of Japanese agricultural cooperatives, joint marketing, joint purchasing and the role of federations of agricultural cooperatives, in addition to the strengthening of cooperatives' capital base, training of cooperative personnel, the mechanism of a cooperative auditing system, farming guidance, and organizing member farmers from the standpoint of bolstering the management and organization of agricultural cooperatives. A video presentation was made depicting the role of Japan's federations of agricultural cooperatives and their marketing activities on national levels.